# Jesse Lawson

## buy me a coffee ☕ / jesselawson / home / tutorials / contact

Oct 21, 2019 - Tutorials Rust

# Welcome

My name is Jesse, and this is an introductory Rust tutorial for developers who like learning by doing.

The purpose of this tutorial is to develop intuition about toolbuilding in Rust–specifically, to learn how to think and build in Rust.

Our goal is to produce a very basic command line compiler that will turn a basic Markdown document containing headings and paragraphs into an html file.

To do this, we will start from scratch by building a simple “Hello, World!” executable. Then, over the course of six chapters, iterate and expand until finally we can compile a very simple Markdown file into valid HTML.

💭 Why THIS tutorial?

Rust requires a different kind of mindset than most developers are typically used to. A lot of the initial pains and frustrations with learning Rust can be mitigated by focusing on developing confidence first. That’s what this tutorial is: a confidence builder.

When I first picked up Rust, I could only get a few weeks into it before my frustration would get the best of me and I would have to abandon it for a while. Eventually I would go back to Rust, have a few more “a-ha” moments, then get frustrated again and take a break. This cycle would continue for about four more times until finally I sat down with a pen and paper and wrote down exactly what it was that kept simultaneously bothering me about and attracting me to Rust.

What I arrived at was something that will likely not be a surprise to you: Rust was frustrating to learn because it required a different mental model when approaching programming problems. I couldn’t do what I did when going from C to C++, or C++ to PHP, or C++ to Java, or any of the other thirty or so languages I am familiar with, which was to just fit whatever syntactical differences the new language had into my existing framework for what a language should do and how it should feel. Rust required, for the most part, a clean slate.

As a tutorial author, I wanted to write an introductory tutorial on Rust to get developers in other languages up and running as fast as possible–but I didn’t want to be like every other Rust tutorial and just dive into the nitty gritty parts of it that, although foundational, were off-putting to anyone trying to learn a new language as unique as Rust.

And it wasn’t just me with this concern. In a survey of 6,000 Rust users, nearly 25% said the language was too hard or confusing to learn, with the two largest areas that all users said were very difficult being lifetimes and the ownership/borrowing system. If I was going to write a tutorial that would get people excited about Rust, I knew I would have to focus on building confidence before tackling those complicated topics. In my mind, once someone’s confidence in the language was high enough, tackling things like lifetimes and ownership would be a natural progression in their study.

Take a moment to review the learning objectives (below), then move on to the first chapter.

## Learning Objectives

💭 All Learning Objectives

Chapter 1

• Create a new Rust project on the command line without errors
• Compile and build a simple "Hello, World" Rust project without errors

Chapter 2

• Create a function without errors
• Create an integer variable without errors
• Print an integer variable to the command line without errors

Chapter 3

• Create a string variable without errors
• Return a string variable from a function without errors
• Concatenate two strings without errors
• Print a string to the command line without errors

Chapter 4

• Describe how a compiler works in general
• Create a vector without errors
• Read and parse command-line arguments without errors
• Implement a match block without errors
• Pass an argument to a function without errors

Chapter 5

• Open a file without errors
• Read a file line-by-line without errors
• Describe how a Markdown compiler works
• Write to a file without errors

Chapter 6

• Build a release version of a project in Rust

## Prerequisites

• Have Rust installed on your workstation. You can complete this tutorial if you don’t have Rust installed yet.

## Audience

You will excel in this tutorial if you:

• have Rust installed on your workstation,
• are familiar with the basics of Git-based version control,
• have little to no experience with Rust, and
• are confident in at least one other language.

# Prologue

Optional chapter. Dive in or skip as needed.

💭 Why Rust?

Rust’s main attractor to me is that I can have all the control of a lower-level language like C with some of the more expressive elements and memory safety of a higher-level language. It’s almost like a whole new way of thinking about software engineering problems. In fact, the way Rust handles variable assignment, passing arguments into functions, and returning values out from functions, is a somewhat unique way of thinking about the tools we’re building.

Well, just like how Common Core came in and revamped the way we teach Math, there are people who are very (and sometimes toxically) critical of how Rust forces us to think differently about things. But every language has pros and cons, and it’s really up to you to figure out which one makes the most sense given what you’re building and how you like to mentally model your problems.

I recommend that you don’t fall down these “Is Rust Better Than” or “Rust Sucks Because” rabbit holes. We’re all engineers, and engineers use tools. We should welcome new ways to think about the problems we’ve been solving for years and years, because eventually we’re going to find better ways of solving them.

Form your own opinions. Tools are supposed to be fun engaging, not talking points for mudslinging.

💭 How is this different from other introductory Rust tutorials?

My tutorial series is designed differently than anything else I’ve seen about Rust. Being an autodidact, I wrote these tutorials in a way that would have helped give me the foundational confidence that I never got reading traditional books and popular introductory tutorials online. Rust requires a different mindset, yes, but I don’t think we as Rust teachers should be frontloading all of Rust’s esotericities into tutorials meant to gently introduce someone into the language.

The official Rust book is great. The O’Reilly book is great. There are a lot of great tutorials, too. I personally like to learn a new language and it’s requisite thinking paradigms by diving in and building tools. Rust is, after all, a systems language, and toolbuilding is a great way to dive into practical application. On top of that, having a parallel objective (building a tiny markdown compiler) that is easy to understand provides some foundational confidence in what we’re learning and applying.

It’s a unique way to learn Rust, that’s for sure, and it’s the way I wish I could have learned it.

That being said, this course is not meant to get you up and running with Rust per se; the problem that I have seen with newcomers to Rust is that there is just too much to learn too soon, and there’s not enough payoff in the beginning after “Hello, world!” to justify sticking around. In my humble opinion, this is because most Rust tutorials aren’t teaching people how fun Rust is for building tools, and instead focusing too much on how idiosyncratic the unique features of Rust are. Those tutorials are still important, but I think other tutorials– ones that focus on building something, even if it’s not that complicated–are important, too, and serve to compliment the still young (as of 2019) ecosystem of Rust tutorials online.

💭 What is Markdown and what does a Markdown compiler do?

Markdown is a minimalistic language for writing HTML content very quickly. It gives us the ability to write text-based documents that are legible and small, while compiling into vaid HTML. It makes drafting, updating, and publishing very easy, and is a common tool used among programmers in all lines of work.

A Markdown compiler’s job is to convert “markdown” content into valid HTML.

For example, I could have the following article written in Markdown:

# This is a title

This is a paragraph of text. How neat! In this tutorial, we will learn how to
turn this into a paragraph block by putting <p> tags around it.


And a markdown compiler will convert it into the following HTML:

<h1>This is a title</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph of text. How neat! In this tutorial, we will learn how to
turn this into a paragraph block by putting <code><p></code> tags around it.</p>


The compiler we are building in this course will convert heading tags, paragraph blocks, and code snippets from Markdown into valid HTML.

# Chapter 1

Our goal for this chapter is to develop confidence in setting up a new Rust project.

If you haven’t already installed Rust, you should do that now.

We will start by creating a folder to keep track of all our tutorial projects. In my tutorials, you will often see C:\RustTutorials as the root folder of all our projects. Go ahead and name yours whatever you want.

For this tutorial, we are creating a Markdown compiler called TinyMD–which is also the name of my rejected Netflix show about a sentient spider that goes to medical school. You don’t have to make a new directory; we’re going to do that with Rust’s Cargo toolchain, the package manager and project building tool that comes along with the Rust compiler when you installed Rust.

We will scafford this and all projects in Rust using the cargo tool, passing the new argument and specifying what we want:

$cargo new tinymd --bin  The command cargo new builds a new project, and the --bin flag tells Cargo that this project will result in an executable (called tinymd) instead of being a library. I am going to cover libraries and the package system in a different tutorial, but for now you can think of it like NPM, Rubygems, or any other package system. Once you’ve ran the cargo new command, you will get a confirmation that the project was scaffolded correctly: With our new Rust project started, let’s go ahead and open the project’s root folder. Use your favorite editor to open up the new folder named tinymd. If you’re using VS Code like me, you can usually type: code tinymd and VS Code will automatically launch with the new folder: Rust projects, at the bare minimum, consist of: • A src folder, where your Rust code (Rust files end in .rs) lives • A .gitignore file, because version control thinking is built-in • A Cargo.toml file, which is the manifest file. This is the project configuration and dependencies script. This would be like the Gemfile in Ruby, or package.json in Node. Anytime we create a new project like this, Rust sticks in some default code for us. Here you can see that it’s nothing more than a simple “Hello, world!” program. There are several things you can intuit about Rust’s syntax by looking at the prepackaged dummy code in the main.rs file: As you might have guessed: this looks a lot like C; functions are declared with fn; the printf equivalent is println!, which is a macro and not a function; this program does nothing more than print "Hello, world!" to the command line. 💭 Functions vs Macros in Rust A macro in Rust encapsulates code and presents it in a developer-friendly way. There are only a few that we will be using throughout these tutorials, and all of them are delivered through Rust. Macros make it easy to provide batteries-included tools to help developers write more fluid and legible code, and you can think of them as like super functions for now. I personally don’t like that new Rust programmers have to deal with macros from the start, but this is just one of the ways Rust really is a unique programming experience. Before we get ahead of ourselves, let’s build this project. Open up your terminal (if you’re using VS Code, you can use the integrated terminal by typing Ctrl+), and then type cargo build: You can see that the build command first compiles the project before building it. The other stuff there–dev [unoptimized + debuginfo]–is telling us that we have compiled and built this project for dev purposes only. The code is not optimized and there are debug symbols present that we would normally not keep in a release version. The dev target is the default target for the cargo build command, and is equivalent to a Debug build (in a paradigm where you have either Debug or Release builds). The default cargo build is perfectly fine for learning Rust, and will be the way we build all our Rust projects. It takes care of dependency management checking and interfaces the compiler (rustc) for us so that we can have a one stop shop for working with our code. At this point, you should see a new directory called target in your project’s root directory. It was created by using the cargo build command’s default target, which is Debug. Here you will find your project’s executables. We have covered two Cargo commands so far: • cargo new, to create a new Rust project, and • cargo build, to build a Rust project The third Cargo command we will often use is cargo run, which is how we will run the executable that our project builds. Let’s try running our current project: Note that we don’t need to pass the name of the project; Rust will infer that for us, by executing the appropriate .exe file based on the release target. If you see “Hello, world!” in your terminal, then congratulations: you have built your first Rust program! In the next section, we’ll dive into the Rust language and start customizing our markdown compiler to make it feel like an actual program. # Chapter 2 Our goal for this chapter is to develop confidence about basic functions and variables in Rust. All of our project’s source files live in the src directory, and for the purposes of clarity, we’re only going to use the main.rs file for our markdown compiler. The Hello World example code provided gives us all we need to know to start customizing our project. By the end of this chapter, executing our code without arguments will output a banner–a short block of text that includes the program’s name, the author, a brief description, and usage examples. ## Creating a function in Rust The first thing we are going to write in Rust is a function. As you can see from the main() function, basic functions with no return values or arguments are fairly simple to write. Let’s go ahead and write a new function called usage() right at the top of our file. Inside it, we’ll use the same code that we can see being used to write "Hello, world!" to output the name and a short description of our tool: Go ahead and replace <YOUR NAME> with your name if you haven’t already done so. To compile and run this, you can just run cargo run, which, if it detects any changes in your source files, will recompile and rebuild your project behind the scenes: $ cargo run
Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 0.00s
Running target\debug\tinymd.exe
Hello, world!
$ 💭 What if I see a ‘warning: function is never used’ message? If you run the code above, you’ll likely see a warning that looks like this: warning: function is never used: usage --> src/main.rs:1:4 | 1 | fn usage() { | ^^^^^ | = note: #[warn(dead_code)] on by default  If it wasn’t already apparent, you can ignore this warning because it is just Rust telling us we have a function that we’ve declared but not used. This warning will go away once we actually call the function. If you don’t really care to look at the accompanying information (Finished dev and Running lines), you can pass the -q flag to Cargo, which tells it to be quiet: $ cargo run -q
Hello, world!


To save space, that’s how I’ll be compiling, building, and running the code as we make changes to it–so don’t panic when you see the -q flag.

Let’s go ahead and replace the Hello World line in the main function body with a call to usage():

Go ahead and compile, build, and run:

$cargo run -q tinymd, a markdown compiler written by <YOUR NAME>  Neat! But an argumentless and returnless function is about as useful as an inflatable dart board. To improve our usage() function, let’s have it return a simple value that we can write to the console window. ## Creating a function with a return value in Rust In this section, we’re going to create a function called get_version() that will return some arbitrary version number of our tool. We saw earlier that a function with no arguments and no return value is written like this: fn get_version() { }  Let’s say our version number is 1000, and we want to return that from a function and then print it out. Recall that the range of an unsigned integer is 0 to 2X-1, meaning we would need to store the number 1000 in at least a 16-bit unsigned integer (which has a range of 0 to 65,535). We denote that in Rust with the keyword u16. To tell a function to return a u16, we write it like this: fn get_version() -> u16 { }  This declares a function named get_version that takes no arguments and returns a u16. You can see that we specify return values by using the -> set of symbols. To return the value 1000, we can either use the return keyword (which does exactly what it sounds like) or we can do what Ruby does and just write the number. The following functions do the same exact thing: fn get_version() -> u16 { 1000 } fn get_version() -> u16 { return 1000; }  In both examples above, the functions will evaluate to the number 1000. This is because Rust is considered an expression-based language (like Ruby!). In an expression-based language, everything is an expression–and expressions evaluate to values. That means that a block of code, being an expression, evaluates to a value. Since a function is a block of code, functions evaluate to a value, too. Notice that we only need the semi-colon when we use the return keyword; the number 1000 by itself is the value that the block evaluates to, while the return 1000; is a statement–and statements end with a semicolon. The accepted way in the Rust community (and in most expression-based languages) is to only use the return keyword for early returns–that is, for when the last statement in a particular block may not be the only value that the block can evaluate to. For example, if you wanted to print some output based on the version number, you would do something like this: fn get_version() -> u16 { let version = 1; // For the sake of example if version < 2 { return 1; } 2 }  Obviously this is a pointless block of code, but you can see that the block will evaluate to 1, and in the satisifed if expression, we use the return keyword to indicate an early return. It’s an early return because the block would normally evaluate to 2, but in the case of the early if check, it could return a value earlier than when 2 would be returned. Let’s add the new get_version() function to our program by calling it from within the println!() macro in usage(): Here you can see how we pass arguments to println!() like we would a typical printf function in another language. Since Rust provides this macro for us, it can discern what kind of variable you are trying to print so you don’t have to worry about specifying the type. For example, in C’s printf function you would use %s to denote where you want the character array to be printed; Rust only requires you to use {}, regardless of the variable’s type. (We will be printing strings very soon, so sit tight!) Go ahead and compile, build, and run this with the following command: cargo run You should see the following output: $ cargo run
Compiling tinymd v0.1.0 (C:\RustTutorials\tinymd)
Finished dev [unoptimized + debuginfo] target(s) in 0.63s
Running target\debug\tinymd.exe
tinymd, a markdown compiler written by <YOUR NAME>
Version 1000


The version integer (1000) is being printed, and the println! macro can infer that it’s an integer based on the return type specified by get_version().

We’re almost done with this chapter. Now that we’re confident with Rust’s function syntax, let’s learn how to create and assign a value to a simple variable.

## Creating an integer variable in Rust

The first kind of variable we will learn about is the integer. All variables in Rust are declared by putting their type after their name. For example, if we want to create an integer variable to hold the version of our application, we would declare a variable version like this:

let version: u16;  // I'm using u16 for the sake of example only. This could be
// a u8, too. It just depends on your variable size.


Recall that u16 is short for unsigned 16-bit integer.

Variables in Rust are declared with the let keyword, and then we use a colon (:) to describe the variable’s type. All variables need to be declared like this, unless the variables type can be inferred by, say, the return value of a function. Let’s practice using both ways to declare a variable.

To store our arbitrary application version in a variable, let’s declare it within the scope of the usage() function. Then, instead of having println! use the function get_version() to print the version, we’ll have it use our local variable:

As you can see, substituting the function with the variable in println! is fairly straightforward. Additionally, look at how we declared the_version, then passed the value of the function to it. Rust infers the type of variable we want based on the return value of the function we use to assign it a value.

We can improve this by letting Rust infer the_version's type:

fn usage() {
let the_version = get_version();
// ...
println!("Version {}", the_version);
}


Neat!

# Chapter 3

Our goal in this chapter is to develop confidence about a few of the basic string operations in Rust.

Our tiny markdown compiler is only just being born. We’ve got a project setup, and if we run the program we are able to output a banner–a block of helpful text that usually says what the program is, who wrote it, and how to use it. We have wrapped up this banner in the usage() function. By the end of the last chapter, we were outputting the version of our program.

In this chapter, we will improve the banner by pulling data from our project’s manifest file (Cargo.toml) instead of hard-coding things like the version number into main.rs. To do this, we need to understand how Rust deals with strings and, perhaps most importantly, what makes Rust wholly different from many languages you might already be used to: ownership.

## Creating a string variable in Rust

Most people think of strings as the content between a pair of quotes (") and, well, nothing really else beyond that. Rust forces us to become very familiar with how a string is understood by a computer–as a collection of bytes that, in Rust’s case, are guaranteed to be valid UTF-8. That being said, every language has a way to implement a collection of bytes in one of two ways: heap-allocated strings, which are dynamically created at runtime and during the application’s lifecycle, and stack-allocated strings, which are allocated at compile-time. Rust is going to make us get real familiar with both.

In Rust, there are two types of string variables: String, which is allocated on the heap, and &str (called a string slice), which may be stack or heap allocated depending on what it points to. Since stack-allocated variables must have a known size at compile time, only String variables retain ownership over their addresses in memory when they’re changed.

A String is a akin to a vector. It can grow, shrink, push(), pop(), and it is automatically freed when the variable goes out of scope. Further, a String has its own buffer in memory; it is said to be the owner of the memory where the bytes are stored.

A &str, on the other hand, is a string slice. It does not own any buffers in memory, but rather, it borrows whatever is at an address from a different owner. You can think of a &str as pointer or borrowed reference to a string owned by a different variable or the application itself. For this reason, string slices are immutable.

So which one would we use, and when?

Think of a String as a dynamic vector of characters that we would use when we want to build a string dynamically. For example, in our markdown compiler, we will be using Strings to hold the value of each block of HTML code; if we were going to write <h1>Hello, world!</h1>, we would push() the first tag, then the inner content, then the closing tag. Using a string slice wouldn’t make sense here since the value of the String will change as we add (“push”) data into it.

Think of a &str as a window into another string, whether that string is a string literal (in which case the string slice would be static and stack-allocated) or a String (in which case the string slice would be heap-allocated).

Let’s see how both of these string types can be used effectively by modifying our the_version variable to be a &str–and while we’re at it, let’s change the version of our markdown compiler to be a more traditional early prototype version (0.1) instead of 1000:

fn usage() {
let the_version: &str = "0.1";
println!("tinymd, a markdown compiler written by <YOUR NAME>");
println!("The Version: {}", the_version);
}


Here we have turned the_version into a string slice (&str). Rust is going to see the "0.1" and know to compile that value as a static string in the program, and then has the_version borrow that value. The reason we say it borrows the value there is because technically it’s not the owner of the buffer where "0.1" lives–the application is. (Anytime a string literal like "0.1" is created at compile time, it is created as a static string slice–it exists in the binary code that makes up the executable and cannot be changed.)

Since the_version is going to borrow the value of a string literal, how might we let Rust infer the_version's type?

We can rewrite the declaration to omit the type, since Rust knows "0.1" is a string literal and all string literals become static string slices:

let the_version = "0.1";


Here we omit the : &str part of the declaration because Rust will infer that, since "0.1" is a string literal, the_version needs to be a &str.

When Rust goes to compile our program, the string "0.1" is compiled into the program as a string literal (essentially a static string) and thus gets instantiated in stack memory, and the_version (which is allocated dynamically at runtime in heap memory) borrows the value at the address in stack memory where Rust stored it.

Our program will build and run just fine as long as we comment out our old get_version() function. Ensure your main.rs looks like this now:

Go ahead and build and run it:

$cargo run -q Remember that the run command will also trigger a build if it detects that the files have changed (which they have), and the -q flag tells cargo to just do it as quietly as possible. Your output should look like this: $ cargo run -q
tinymd, a markdown compiler written by <YOUR NAME>
The Version: 0.1


Though it runs fine, we haven’t improved anything by baking in a string version instead of an integer version. What we want to do instead is to pull the actual version of the application from the project’s manifest file (Cargo.toml). Rust gives us a macro to do just that: env!(), which returns the value associated with a particular key.

Let’s take a look inside Cargo.toml right now, to see what we are working with:

Many other languages use manifest files like Rust’s Cargo.toml, such as Node (package.json) and Ruby (Gemfile). The information here is fairly straight-forward. These variables in here are sometimes called environment variables. Rust will provide the key values from the manifest file as environment variables for us during compilation.

Our goal is to pull out variables from this manifest file and stick them into our usage() function. In doing so, we will then be able to display the string values we see in the manifest file as parts of the banner of our application. Neat!

To do this, we will use the env!() macro I mentioned earlier. Remember that macros in Rust are, as far as we are concerned, basically the same as functions–except a macro has an exclamation point after its name to denote that it is a macro. The env!() macro takes one argument: a string key corresponding to the variable we want.

The following are the string keys we are going to be using:

• CARGO_PKG_VERSION - The full version of your package.
• CARGO_PKG_AUTHORS - Colon separated list of authors from the manifest of your package.
• CARGO_PKG_NAME - The name of your package.
• CARGO_PKG_DESCRIPTION - The description from the manifest of your package.
• CARGO_PKG_HOMEPAGE - The home page from the manifest of your package.

As you may have guessed, each of these string keys corresponds to a key from the manifest file. For example, the version key in the manifest file is retrieved by passing CARGO_PKG_VERSION to env!().

You’ll notice that there are some fields in the list of string keys above that are not in the manifest file. The reason they aren’t there is because they are not part of the default scaffolding. Let’s go ahead and add them; you are free to set these to whatever you would like.

Go to the Cargo.toml file and add entries for description and homepage, then modify the name, authors, and version as you see fit:

Note: The edition field lets you target a specific edition of Rust. Don’t change this; use the value that Cargo put in there for now.

Looking good. Next, we’re going to create a function that gets us one of the environment variables. Let’s do the version first. Knowing that env!() takes a single string key as an argument and returns the environment variable from the manifest file, how do you think we would do that?

One way is to just set the value of the_version to be the result of a call to env!():

// ...
let the_version = env!("CARGO_PKG_VERSION");
println!("Version: {}", the_version);
// ...


However, a smarter way to generate a banner is through a single function call. In other words, anytime we would need to print out the tool’s banner, we should be able to do it with a single function call: usage(). To do that, we would need to move the version variable into the usage() function. While we’re at it, let’s go ahead and encapsulate the work of getting the version out into its own function–and replacing get_version() with something a little more helpful.

## Returning a string variable in Rust

Recall that there are two types of strings in Rust: there’s the vector-esque String, and the string slice &str. We use a String when we want a string that we can modify like we would an array (pushing and popping characters and/or strings to and from it), and &str when we only need a slice of an existing string.

We can modify get_version() to return a string by modifying the return value of the function. Recall that the return value of the function right now is a u16. How do you think we would change it to a String?

fn get_version() -> String {
//...
}


Changing the return value to a String is easy enough, but I want to take this function a different way. Instead of just getting our version–which would mean we would create separate functions for all of the other manifest values we want to retrieve–let’s replace get_version() with a function that returns more than just one value from the manifest file.

When the usage() function prints the banner, I want it to print something like this:

$tinymd tinymd (v0.1.0), a tiny and mostly useless markdown compiler. Written by <Your Name> Usage: tinymd <somefile.md>  You might already see the variables that we need to retrieve in order to produce the above output: [name] (v[version]), [description] Written by [author] Usage: tinymd <somefile.md>  Additionally, whenever the tool is doing it’s job, I still want part of the banner to be outputted. For example, if I wanted to compile a file called something.md into something.html, maybe the tool works like this: $ tinymd something.md
tinymd (v0.1.0), a tiny and mostly useless markdown compiler.
Compiling something.md...
Done! Your new file is something.html.
$ Imagining how we want our tool to behave is a good way to think about what needs to be done to get there. In the above example, you can see that the first line of the banner will be printed regardless of what we are doing. So it makes sense to create a separate function that can generate that for us. To do this, we are going to create a String variable and then push the title, the version, and then the description to it. This means that the variable needs to be mutable (i.e., able to be changed), and brings us to an important concept in Rust: all variables are immutable by default. Rust makes all variables immutable by default as part of a memory strategy that guarantees no memory leaks. It’s one of the nuances that beginners tend to get hung up on in Rust, but once you master it you will see just how clever this way of thinking about writing programs is. To illustrate how Rust treats all variables as immutable unless told otherwise, let’s try to modify the value of the_version after declaring it: fn usage() { let the_version = "0.1"; the_version = "0.2"; println!("tinymd, a markdown compiler written by <YOUR NAME>"); println!("The Version: {}", the_version); } fn main() { usage(); }  Go ahead and replace all the contents in main.rs with what you see above. Try to build this project using cargo build, and look what the Rust compiler tells you: $ cargo build
Compiling tinymd v0.1.0
warning: value assigned to the_version is never read
--> src\main.rs:36:9
|
36 |     let the_version = "0.1";
|         ^^^^^^^^^^^
|
= note: #[warn(unused_assignments)] on by default
= help: maybe it is overwritten before being read?

error[E0384]: cannot assign twice to immutable variable the_version
--> src\main.rs:37:5
|
36 |     let the_version = "0.1";
|         -----------
|         |
|         first assignment to the_version
|         help: make this binding mutable: mut the_version
37 |     the_version = "0.2";
|     ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ cannot assign twice to immutable variable

error: aborting due to previous error

For more information about this error, try rustc --explain E0384.
error: Could not compile tinymd.



You are now witnessing the power of Rust’s development toolchain: the integrated borrow-checker, Rust’s smart compiler, which sees what you are doing, tells you what you’re doing wrong, and then suggests a way to fix it. Though there is a lot of output here, I want you to focus your attention on three parts specifically:

• warning: value assigned to 'the_version' is never read. Here, Rust is telling us that we assigned a value to the_version but then never used it. Why would we do that? Rust is trying to show us where we can improve the quality of our program, as evident by its message a few lines down: = help: maybe it is overwritten before being read?

• error[E0384]: cannot assign twice to immutable variable 'the_version'. Rust is telling us that the_version is an immutable variable; it cannot be changed, so when we try to assign a new value to its instantiated value, the Rust compiler aborts.

• help: make this binding mutable: 'mut the_version'. Rust’s borrow checker is showing us how to turn the_version into a mutable variable. Only mutable variables can have their values changed. Otherwise, treat them like a static.

If you’re using a modern command window, the output’s colors help direct our attention to where we need to focus:

The red text there helps us see what the problem is.

How do you think we should fix this?

(Go to your code editor and try to fix it using the output from the cargo build command as guidance. I’ll give you a hint: you have to add a three-letter keyword somewhere…)

The answer is, of course, to add the mut keyword after let in the declaration of the_version:

fn usage() {
let mut the_version = "0.1";
the_version = "0.2";
println!("tinymd, a markdown compiler written by <YOUR NAME>");
println!("The Version: {}", the_version);
}


Any variable that we want to be able to change after declaration needs to have the mut keyword, otherwise the variable will be considered immutable (i.e., unchangeable).

With this new knowledge, we can now create a String variable that we will use to build the first line of the banner.

Go ahead and delete everything in main.rs; we’re going to start from scratch, creating a new way to think about our banner that includes dynamically created strings.

Let’s start off with the banner itself. We want to isolate the first line, which includes the title, version, and description, so that we can call it from both usage() and from another function which will be the meat and potatoes of the compiler. Let’s call that function parse_markdown_file().

In our empty main.rs file, go ahead and create these two empty functions along with the same main() function as before:

Now, just above usage(), let’s create two more functions: one to print just the first line of the banner, which I’ll call the title, and one to print both the title and the rest of the banner (e.g., the “written by” and “usage” strings). We are going to call them print_short_banner() and print_long_banner(), respectively:

We’re almost finished mapping out the main functions of our tool. The last one we need–and the one we will spend the rest of this chapter on–goes right at the top and will be called get_title(). This one will be different because it is going to return a String:

fn get_title() -> String {

}


Great! Let’s go over all these functions so we know how they’re all related.

• parse_markdown_file() will be called when we are passed a markdown file via the command line. We will leave this empty; Chapter 4 is when we will flesh this out.
• print_short_banner() will output the title, version, and description. We’re going to build this next.
• print_long_banner() will output the short banner plus a “written by” attribution and “usage” example.

Recall that the env!() macro, when passed a string key (like CARGO_PKG_NAME), will retrive the value of that key from the manifest file and return it.

Armed with the knowledge we’ve acquired so far, let’s dive into the get_title() function.

The first thing we’ll do is create a local String variable to hold all the data we want to output. Since this will be a variable that we are going to modify by adding strings onto the end of it (like the version and the description), what keyword do we need to have when declaring it?

We need the mut keyword:

fn get_title() -> String {
let mut the_title = String::from(env!("CARGO_PKG_NAME"));


Here’s something we haven’t seen before: a String variable can be created from another string–even if that string is a string slice. Here we are creating a mutable variable the_title from the string returned by the call to env!(), which is grabbing the string value associated with the key CARGO_PKG_NAME–which itself is associated with the manifest file’s name key. Neat!

What is the value of the_title right now?

It’s tinymd, which is what we see when we look at the value for the name key in the manifest file.

With the beginnings of the title string started, we can now start to imagine what this string looks like based on the individual chunks of strings we would need to add to it to make it complete:

[TITLE] (v[VERSION]), [DESCRIPTION]

Or, as a list of individual strings:

1. [TITLE]
2.  (v
3. [VERSION]
4. ), 
5. [DESCRIPTION]

Finally, as a list of the actual strings we will be using:

1. env!("CARGO_PKG_NAME")
2.  (v
3. env!("CARGO_PKG_VERSION")
4. ), 
5. env!("CARGO_PKG_DESCRIPTION")

So the title string itself is composed of five individual strings that need to be pushed onto the_title.

We can push a string onto another string (i.e., concatenate two strings) by using the .push_str() method of a String. Since we already have the title in the_title, the next string we need to add is  (v:

fn get_title() -> String {
let mut the_title = String::from(env!("CARGO_PKG_NAME"));
the_title.push_str(" (v");


As you can see, a String can be instantiated by building one from another source–like, in this case, the return value of the env!() macro. You’ll also note that the String::from bears resemblance to method calling calling from other languages.

To add to the end of the string, Rust gives us the push_str() method. At this point, the value of the_title is tinymd (v.

How do you think we will build the rest of the_title?

Try to build the rest of the_title yourself, using the .push_str() examples above, and then open up the Solution below to see if you got it right.

Remember: the goal is for the_title to equal something like this:

tinymd (v0.1.0), A tiny markdown compiler based on Jesse's tutorials.

One Possible Solution
fn get_title() -> String {
let mut the_title = String::from(env!("CARGO_PKG_NAME"));
the_title.push_str(" (v");
the_title.push_str(env!("CARGO_PKG_VERSION"));
the_title.push_str("), ");
the_title.push_str(env!("CARGO_PKG_DESCRIPTION"));
return the_title;
}


We now have a function that will get the title string of our program, which is what we call the short banner.

We are going to call get_title() from the print_short_banner() function by using the println!() macro. Can you guess how we will do that?

One Possible Solution

You can use the string substitution characters {} (just like how you might use %s in C’s printf), like this:

fn print_short_banner() {
println!("{}", get_title());
}


Great! Now, anytime we want to output just the short banner, we have a function dedicated to just that.

Next, let’s flesh out the print_long_banner() function.

We know that the first thing the long banner print’s is the short banner. How might we call the short banner function from inside print_long_banner()?

Exactly the way you would think to do it:

fn print_long_banner() {
print_short_banner();

}


The rest of the long banner will contain the other elements from the manifest file that we haven’t retrieved yet, and we will retrieve them exactly the same way we did so for the name, version, and description in the short banner.

Here’s what we want the long banner to look like:

tinymd (v0.1.0), A tiny markdown compiler based on Jesse's tutorials.
Homepage: https://jesselawson.org/rust
Usage: tinymd <somefile>.md


If we break this up into four separate strings, it will be easier to plan out how you will tackle this function:

• print_short_banner()
• "Written by: " + env!("CARGO_PKG_AUTHORS")
• "Homepage: " + env!("CARGO_PKG_HOMEPAGE")
• "Usage: tinymd <somefile>.md"

Using what you’ve learned so far and the get_title() function as a reference, try constructing the rest of the print_long_banner() function on your own. Here’s a hint: you only need the above env!() examples and some corresponding calls to println!().

Two Possible Solutions

One way to do this is by creating separate strings for each line of the banner:

fn print_long_banner() {
print_short_banner();
let mut written_by = String::from("Written by: ");
written_by.push_str(env!("CARGO_PKG_AUTHORS"));
let mut homepage = String::from("Homepage: ");
homepage.push_str(env!("CARGO_PKG_HOMEPAGE"));
let mut usage = String::from("Usage: tinymd <somefile>.md");
println!("{}", written_by);
println!("{}", homepage);
println!("{}", usage);
}


Another way is to just pull all this directly into a single call to the println!() macro:

fn print_long_banner() {
print_short_banner();
println!("Written by: {}\nHomepage: {}\nUsage: tinymd <somefile>.md\n",
env!("CARGO_PKG_AUTHORS"),
env!("CARGO_PKG_HOMEPAGE")
);
}


Let’s finish out this chapter by building our tool one last time. What command can we use to build the project and run it quietly all at once?

One Solution

Recall that Cargo’s run command will automatically trigger a build if it detects that source files have been changed since the last time the program was built. We can also pass the -q flag to keep the output quiet–that is, not show all the verbose output that comes with a bare cargo build command.

$cargo run -q  With the banner complete, we are now ready to start building functionality into our tool. Armed with new knowledge and confidence about creating strings, adding characters to strings, and printing strings, we’re now ready to begin parsing command line arguments so that we can really dig into the heart of this tool. # Chapter 4 Our goal in this chapter is to develop confidence with parsing and interpreting command-line arguments, describing how a markdown compiler works, and implementing control blocks to make it possible. We are also going to introduce vectors to get a head start on the next chapter. ## How a Markdown compiler works Now is a good time to start thinking about how we want to interact with our tiny markdown compiler. At its very core, a command-line markdown compiler should take in the name of a markdown file and then turn it into valid HTML file. Our tool is going to be very naive: it will accept only one argument (the name of the markdown file), it will expect that file to end in .md, and it will only convert first-order headings (# for the <h1> tag) and paragraphs. By the end of this tutorial, though, you will have all the knowledge necessary to expand on this tool and make it less naive. I will leave that to you as a challenge for once you’re finished. Until then, let’s start thinking about how we want to interact with our tool, and some of our expectations when we use it. Calling our tool should be as simple as: $ tinymd somefile.md


When we call the tool from the command line, we will intitiate the tool’s lifecycle. An application’s lifecycle is the set of steps it goes through from the start of execution to the end of execution.

Our compiler’s lifecycle will look something like this:

Given a call to tinymd...
When I pass a markdown file as an argument, it should:
1. open the file
2. parse the file line by line into a buffer
3. export the buffer to a new html file
When I pass anything else OR no argument at all, it should:
1. show the banner


As I mentioned before, this tool isn’t going to be very smart. We will expect only two possible outcomes from invoking it: either we will print the banner, because we have not passed a single argument that is a valid markdown file, or we will parse a valid markdown file, because we passed a valid markdown file as the sole argument.

Knowing all the ways our tool will be invoked helps to guide how we will develop the main logic that will call the appropriate functions based on the given arguments (or lack thereof).

The following table illustrates all the possible ways someone could invoke the tinymd tool, and what we need to plan for in terms of execution:

Command Outcome
tinymd usage() (which calls print_long_banner())
tinymd abc Pass parse_markdown_file() the file named abc
tinymd test.md Pass parse_markdown_file() the file named test.md
tinymd one two usage() (because it only accepts ONE argument)

Essentially, any command that does not have a single valid markdown file as its sole argument will just call usage(), which outputs the banner.

Now that we know all the ways our took can be invoked, we are ready to think about how we want our tool to parse a Markdown file.

To define a tool that parses Markdown, we need to know what a Markdown file looks like. For the sake of this tutorial, we are only concerned with two types of Markdown syntax: headings and paragraphs. A heading in Markdown is denoted with a #. Paragraphs are plain text with no special characters at the start of the line.

For example, let’s say we have a markdown file called favorite_writers.md with the following contents:

# My Favorite Writer

My favorite writer is Jesse!


Aww, thanks!

In the table below, I have manually translated each line into its HTML equivalent:

Markdown HTML Equivalent
# My Favorite Writer <h1>My Favorite Writer</h1>
My favorite writer is Jesse! <p>My favorite writer is Jesse!<p>

This type of translation is exactly what the compiler is going to do. Neat!

Now we know how our tool will be invoked, and when it is, how we want the Markdown inside to be translated into HTML. Next, we’ll start building the command-line argument parsing logic so that we can pass a Markdown file to our tool.

## How to parse command line arguments in Rust

The idea behind parsing command line arguments is fairly straight forward. Given an argument, perform some operation based on what that argument is. In the case of our Markdown compiler, we really only care about one argument–and we hope that it’s the name of a Markdown file.

The way Rust parses arguments is to collect them all up and store them in an iterable object. This is also how most other languages do it, too; once the collection happens, you will generally want to do a for loop or some kind of switch statement that will parse the arguments first by the number of arguments (since the number of arguments can trigger certain operations, if we wanted) and then by the value of those arguments.

Rust has a special kind of switch statement called match, which does exactly what it sounds like: it matches values with associated logic. The way we use these to parse arguments is by collecting the arguments into an iterable object, then looping through them to match their values with some associated operations.

Rust has a concept called collections, which you can probably guess are akin to vectors or lists. A collection in Rust is something that can be iterated; anything that can be looped through and acted on is generally considered a collection. When values (like command-line arguments) can be stuffed into a single object and iterated, we say that they are collected.

To do this in Rust, it’s actually very straightforward: we will create a variable to hold our arguments, which will be a vector of Strings, pull out our arguments, then collect them into a single, iterable object.

A vector in Rust is a type denoted by the keyword Vec, followed by < and >, with the variable type enclosed in the brackets.

Since we want to create a String vector–where each argument given will be a different element of the vector–we will declare it as a type Vec<String>.

Let’s create a variable called args that is a String vector, and assign it the value of our collected arguments:

// Collect all arguments in a vector
let args: Vec<String> = std::env::args().collect();


You might recognize this chaining-style syntax from other languages. Rust has a lot of features behind the scenes that make it feel like a higher-level language, while at the same time requiring a closer-to-the-metal mindset. Here, the expression std::env::args() exposes an evironment variable of type std::env::Args, and then collects the arguments into a vector–to be used as the return value.

The .collect() part of this takes the arguments and converts them into a std::iter::Iterator<std::string::String>–which, as you can see, is a generic Iterator type (from which a Vec is derived) of type std::string::String. If you guessed that Vec<std::string::String> and Vec<String> are the same thing, then you guessed right!

The value we give args is a collection of all the arguments. To get this, Rust gives us a standard library of tools called std. From std, we are given the env, which holds specific environment variables. To get those variables, we use env's member function args() to pull them out–then chain the function collect() to it–which collects the arguments into an iterable object.

At this point, args is an iterable vector of strings, where each element is an argument passed from the command line. If you’ve ever dealt with command-line tools before, you will know that the first element in the list is always going to be the name of the program (i.e., tinymd). Rust arrays start at zero, so the value at &args[0] is going to be tinymd.

Notice how we use the reference operator & to grab the value at args[0]. Rust has a very unique way of treating variable assignment and ownership. To explain, consider the following two pseudo statements:

1) left = right;
2) left = &right;


In most other languages, the first statement means that the value of left is identical now to the value of right. In other words, if we try to access the value of left or right later on, both will be the same value. In Rust, however, the right-hand expression is moved to the left,, meaning that only the left-hand expression contains the value now.

If you want to keep the value in the right-hand expression while also creating a reference to it, you need to use the reference (&) operator. This seems like a daunting new idea at first, but the more you think about it, the more it makes sense. In fact, this one idea in Rust has helped me to be a better developer in every other language, since now I am purposefully thinking about what kind of mutability I want each variable I create to have.

So if we wanted to access the second element in the args vector (which is the name of the Markdown file we are supposed to be passing), we would use &args[1] and not args[1], since the former will provide a reference to the data and the latter will trigger a move of that value–which we do not want.

Let’s go ahead and collect up the arguments in our program. Go to your main() function and delete everything inside. Next, let’s add our args declaration:

fn main() {

let args: Vec<String> = std::env::args().collect();

}


Great! Our main() function is now going to collect up the arguments and, in the next section, we’ll see how it matches the correct number of arguments with the appropriate operations. If the program has two arguments, that means we have the program name (element 0) and the Markdown file name (element 1). Any other number of arguments should be rejected by the program. In the next section, we will build this logic out.

## How to write a basic match block in Rust

With the arguments collected into args, we now want to make sure that there are only two of them. Recall that our goal is to accept just one argument: the name of a Markdown file to parse. This means that we have two total elements in the args vector: the name of the program, and the name of the Markdown file.

We only handle invocation that includes two arguments, so the length of the args vector should be 2. To check this, we’ll use a match block to match the length of the vector with either 2 (the length we want) or not 2:

fn main() {

let args: Vec<String> = std::env::args().collect();

match args.len() {
// ...
}

}


Here you can see that we grab the length of the vector by calling .len() on it. The result is an integer value. To match values in this match block, we declare them like this: left => right. If args.len() equals 2, then we want to call parse_markdown_file():

match args.len() {
2 => parse_markdown_file(),


You’ll notice the comma at the end; the match rule statements (left=>right) are comma separated. If we wanted to put one before, and call usage() if no file was passed, we might do something like this:

match args.len() {
1 => usage(),
2 => parse_markdown_file(),
// etc. etc.


In this case, checking for one argument or more than two arguments is redundant; instead of checking twice for a number of arguments not equal to 2, we can use the default case for match, which is a _ (underscore):

match args.len() {
2 => parse_markdown_file(),
_ => usage()
}


The default match case (_) will trigger if no other match case triggers.

The match cases don’t have to be a call to a single function. They can also be a block themselves:

match args.len() {
2 => parse_markdown_file(),
_ => {
println!("[ ERROR ] Invalid invocation (you done goofed!)");
usage();
}
}


At this point, our main function can check whether there are two arguments–the name of the program (arg 1) and the Markdown file to be parsed (arg 2), and call the appropriate function (parse_markdown_file()) if there are only two arguments.

## How to pass an argument to a function in Rust

The last thing we need to do in the main() function is to pass the second argument into the function that parses the markdown file–parse_markdown_file(). To do this, we need to change the declaration of parse_markdown_file() to accept a single argument: a string slice that is the filename to parse.

To add an argument to a function, you declare it the same way you would a regular variable, except this time you can omit the let. Let’s modify the function to accept a string slice argument named _filename:

fn parse_markdown_file(_filename: &str) {

}


I’m using an underscore (_) here in the filename variable to remind me that this is coming from a function parameter. Feel free to name it whatever you want.

Let’s also go ahead and put some placeholder text in there to help us see when this function is called:

fn parse_markdown_file(_filename: &str) {
print_short_banner();
println!("[ INFO ] Trying to parse {}...", _filename);
}



Here I have it outputting the short banner and then the informational message.

Now, if we were to invoke the tool with cargo run -q afile.md, it should tell is [ INFO ] Trying to parse afile.md.... We will continue fleshing out this function in the next chapter.

Finally, we have to actually pass the filename to the function, back down in the match block we had finished earlier. When args.len() is 2, we want to pass the second element in the args vector to parse_markdown_file(). To do that, we will simply pass it as a string slice (since the function accepts a &str as the argument):

// ...
match args.len() {
2 => parse_markdown_file(&args[1]),
//...
}


Notice how we access the 2nd element of args the same way we might do it in other languages. Also note that we are using the reference operator here; we don’t want to pass args[1] in, since that would move the value into the function–causing args[1] to be null. Remember: in Rust, assignment is a move, not a copy!

Go ahead and build and run your project: cargo run -q. Here’s what mine says:

$cargo run -q [ ERROR ] You forgot to specify the markdown file to parse! tinymd (v0.1.0), A tiny markdown compiler based on Jesse's tutorials. Written by: Jesse Lawson <drwho@nsa.gov> Homepage: https://jesselawson.org/rust Usage: tinymd <somefile>.md  Next, let’s pass it the name of a fake file to see if we setup our logic correctly: $ cargo run -q test.md
tinymd (v0.1.0), A tiny markdown compiler based on Jesse's tutorials.
[ INFO ] Trying to parse test.md...


Neat!

In this chapter, we developed confidence in our ability to describe how a Markdown compiler works, and learned how to instantiate a vector by reading and parsing command-line arguments in Rust. We also got a little familiar with match, and passing an argument to a function. In the next chapter, we are going to implement our Markdown compiler logic and open a file, read it line-by-line, translate it into HTML, and write the HTML to a new file. It’s going to be fun!

# Chapter 5

If you’ve followed along up until this point, you’ve hopefully grown more confident about starting, building, and iterating a Rust project. Our Markdown compiler is now at a point where it can accept command-line input, and reliably displays a banner based on the input provided.

In this chapter, we will configure our tool to actually parse a Markdown file then output the valid translated HTML into a new file. We will do this by developing confidence in opening and parsing a file, using control statements, iterating over a vector, and writing to a file in Rust.

By the end of this chapter, we will have a working (and naive) Markdown compiler written in Rust, ready to be packaged up for release in the next chapter.

Let’s now dive in and start working on the parsing logic.

## How to open and parse a file in Rust

The primary function that will contain the logic of our Markdown compiler is parse_markdown_file(), which takes a single argument: a string slice (&str) that corresponds to the Markdown file we want to create.

Let’s go ahead and create that dummy file right now. Copy all of the below text into a new file called test.md, and save it in the root of your Rust project. The root of your Rust project also contains the manifest file (Cargo.toml), so just make sure test.md and Cargo.toml are in the same directory.

If you would rather just download test.md directly, you can right-click and save a copy via this link

As you can see, one of my most endearing qualities is my humble modesty.

With test.md in the root of our project folder, we now have an actual file to open and read from.

## Making a Path variable in Rust

Rust goes to great lengths to make sure that your program is cross-platform. One of the ways it does this is by providing the Path module, which helps format strings and string slices into OS-specific path types. The official Rust docs recommend to use a Path variable instead of a string slice anytime you’re working with filenames. This is one of several special tools from Rust that comes from Rust’s std library–which, for the purposes of this tutorial, you can think of as like a namespace.

In Rust, we can tell our program that we want to use Path objects by going to the top of main.rs and adding:

use std::path::Path;


Now we can create a Path object from the argument passed to the parse_markdown_file() function:

fn parse_markdown_file(_filename: &str) {
print_short_banner();
println!("[ INFO ] Starting parser!");

// Create a path variable from the filename
let input_filename = Path::new(_filename);


The call to Path::new() creates a new Path object for us. Now, input_filename is a Path that we can try to open. Again, don’t use a String object to hold a filename, since the Path object is specificially designed to play well with Rust’s other tools for opening, reading, and writing to files.

With our path now an official Rust Path variable, let’s pull in another tool to be able to open the file that the path points to: File.

Just like when we created the Path variable, we will first need to declare that we want to use it by adding the following to the top of main.rs:

use std::path::Path;
use std::fs::File;


Notice that File comes from std::fs, whereas Path comes from std::path.

Back to our parsing function, after declaring the input_filename path variable, let’s create a new File variable with it:


// Create a path variable from the filename
let input_filename = Path::new(_filename);

// Try to open the file
let file = File::open(&input_filename)
.expect("[ ERROR ] Failed to open file!");


Interesting! Now we have a semantic way to open a file using the File::open() function, to which we pass a reference to input_filename, and then to which we chain the .expect() function. You will encounter the .expect() function a lot in your Rust development; it’s used to remove the verbosity around Rust’s Result type.

In a nutshell, many functions in Rust do not just return a value, they return a Result. A Result in Rust has two parts: Ok() and Err(). When you call a function that returns a Result type, you generally need to check whether the function was successful (and thus returned an Ok()) or not successful (and thus returned an Err()). It’s akin to exception handling in other languages, except here it’s baked into the function itself.

What the .expect() does is tell Rust to unwrap the return value and pass along the Ok()–except upon failure, in which case we output the string argument to except as a kind of error message.

So when we write something like this:

let file = File::open(&input_filename).expect("Couldn't open file");


We’re basically writing a less verbose (and, as you can see, less diagnostically helpful) version of this:

use std::error::Error;
// ...
let file = match File::open(&input_filename) {
Err(err) => panic!("Couldn't open file: {}", err.description()),
Ok(value) => value,
};

💭 Why the panic!() macro instead of println!()?

The panic!() macro respects the return type inferred from File::open(), which is type std::fs::File. If you try to use println!() here instead, you will get an error that says something like match arms have incompatible types. This is because println!() doesn’t know what to do with a std::fs::File type, but panic!() doesn’t care what kind of variable you are dealing with.

As you can see, the verbose way requires a lot more of a deep dive into Rust than this tutorial is designed for. For now, the condensed way is good enough to build confidence in using Rust; once confidence is there, you will have plenty of room to confuse yourself with Rust’s esoteric way of doing things– and ultimately become a stronger developer in all languages because of how Rust forces you to think!

There are a lot of new things in the verbose example above, but since you have some experience interpreting match blocks in Rust already, try to see what’s going on. Also notice how we can assign a value to a variable based on the result of a match block. Neat!

For this tutorial, though, we’ll be using the condensed way. You will have plenty of time in your future Rust development journeys to unpack and deep dive into the Result object.

At this point in our program, file is our way of accessing the file passed into the function. With the file open successfully, we can start planning how we will read and parse it.

While this is not a course on compiler design, we need to think about how a compiler looks at a file. When the program gets to the first character in the file, which is a # (indicating a heading tag), it needs to know that the rest of the line will contain all the text within a heading tag.

To illustrate, here is the first line of our test.md, annotated:

# My favorite author
^ ^________________^ ^
|         |          |
|         |          +--- end of line; output </h1>
|         |
|         +--- put this inside the <h1></h1> tags
|
+--- start of heading; output <h1>


To keep track of what stage the parser is at, we create two kinds of state variables called flags. The first flag is whether a header tag is open. If a header tag is open, that means our HTML file would have a <h1> but no corresponding </h1> yet.

The second flag we will keep track of is whether a paragraph tag is open. Remember: for the purposes of this tutorial, our Markdown compiler can only handle first-level headings (#) and paragraphs.

Let’s create two mutable boolean variables to keep track of these states:

let mut ptag: bool = false; // keep track of paragraph tags
let mut htag: bool = false; // keep track of h1 tags


Notice that I’m using an underscore (_) here to precede their names. In Rust, if you instantiate a variable like this but never use the value you use to instantiate it, you will get a warning about unused variable assignments. Rust gets deeply concerned with the fact that you have set a value to a variable that is essentially garbage (since the falseness of these flags is just their default value going into the for-loop). You can safely remove the underscore, but every time you run cargo build (or cargo run which triggers a build), you will get a harmless warning about an unused variable assignment.

With these two flags we can track what kind of tags we are currently reading for, as well as what kind of tag needs to be closed before moving on to the next line in the file.

Speaking of lines, we need a way to store the resultant HTML dynamically, so that we can add to it before writing it all to a file. What kind of variable type do you think we could use for this?

The way we will do it here is through a vector of strings. I’ll call this vector tokens, to help me remember what’s in here. In compiler design, a token is a keyword, operator, separator, or string literal (or some other kind of lowest form of understandable syntax) that the compiler understands. Our vector elements are each going to be a String, and each string element will be made up of either a heading or a paragraph in HTML.

Let’s instantiate our tokens vector:

let mut tokens: Vec<String> = Vec::new();


We make it mutable because we want to add to it; we use Vec::new() to create an empty vector object.

Now we are ready to read the file line by line. Once again, we’re going to call upon one of Rust’s tools for doing just that: BufReader, which is, as you can derive from the name, a buffered file reader. Reading files from the filesystem can be a daunting task for programs, especially if these files are gigantic. To ensure that a 1gb Markdown file will be read about as fast as a 1mb Markdown file, we buffer the input so it reads the file in chunks. Don’t worry: all the heavy lifting happens behind the scenes.

Let’s go to the top of main.rs and add two new entries to the block of use statements:

use std::io::{BufRead, BufReader};


Note that we can combine calls from the same namespace by adding them to a comma-separated list between curly brackets. Neat!

Both BufReader and BufRead are necessary to do what we want to do. The first one lets us buffer a file into memory; the second lets us read those buffers line by line.

Back where we left off in the parse_markdown_file() function, let’s create a variable named reader that will open our file:

let reader = BufReader::new(file);


There! Not so bad, right? The variable reader is now essentially our window into a memory-optimized lens through which we can read the file.

At this point, your parse_markdown_file() function should look something like this:

fn parse_markdown_file(_filename: &str) {
print_short_banner();
println!("[ INFO ] Starting parser!");

// Create a path variable from the filename
let input_filename = Path::new(_filename);

// Try to open the file
let file = File::open(&input_filename)
.expect("[ ERROR ] Failed to open file!");

let mut ptag: bool = false;
let mut htag: bool = false;

// Create a place to store all our tokens
let mut tokens: Vec<String> = Vec::new();

// ...


With the file now open, we can iterate through it one line at a time and start translating Markdown to valid HTML.

## How to read a file line-by-line in Rust

Now it’s time to actually do something with every file line that we read. To do that, we want to loop through the lines in the file that we are given with the reader variable. This reader variable, being assigned the value of the BufReader::new(file) call, now gives us a .lines() method that we can iterate over with a simple for-loop.

In Rust, a for-loop’s syntax is “for x in y”, like this:

for line in reader.lines() {


Perfect: now each line buffered into reader can be parsed.

We’re not quite ready to read the line yet, though. Remember when we did that condensed and verbose example of File::open() because it returned a Result object? Well, line here is also a Result object! So how do we get the value of the line–the actual contents–out?

You might think we need to use a match block, like the verbose example for File::open(). While you can do it this way, there’s really nothing we care to do if the line is empty (i.e., if the Result object produces an Err()). Think about it: if the file was opened correctly, and the contents were buffered correctly, what could cause the line variable within this for-loop to be an error?

Well, it might be the end of the file! So instead of doing error checking on this line every time, we’ll just do a Rust trick called unwrapping. When you unwrap an Result object, you are telling Rust that you 1) expect the value to be available, and 2) don’t care if the value is garbage.

If you wanted to do it the verbose way, you might write:

let line_contents = match line {
Ok(contents) => contents,
Err(e) => panic!("Garbage: {}", e.description())
};


Notice how we would have to match each of the Result elements (Ok() and Err()). We don’t really need all this because, frankly, it’s a bit overkill for just reading the contents of a line in a toy markdown compiler. So instead of manually unwrapping the Result object, we can just use Rust’s .unwrap() method:

// Verbose way:
/*let line_contents = match line {
Ok(contents) => contents,
Err(e) => panic!("Garbage: {}", e.description())
};*/

// Condensed way:
let line_contents = line.unwrap();


Let’s look at what we have so far for the for-loop, complete with some comments:

// Loop through the reader lines
// For each line, unwrap it
let line_contents = line.unwrap();


You’re doing great! Get a drink of water, stretch your back and legs, and come back when you’re ready.

## Getting the first character of a line in Rust

With a line from the Markdown file represented as a string variable called line_contents, we can now figure out what kind of line this is. There are really only two kinds of lines we care about for this naive Markdown compiler: first-order headings and paragraphs.

If a line starts with a hash (#) symbol, then it’s a first-order heading. If, however, it starts with any other alphanumeric value, it’s a paragraph.

You might think that we would do something like line_contents[0] to get the first character of line_contents, but Rust doesn’t store strings as a sequence of characters in memory. Instead, we have to first convert the variable into a sequence of characters, take the first one from that sequence, and then convert it into something that we can use.

To do this, we will create a new variable called first_char which will (you guessed it) hold the first character of line_contents. The variable type will be a vector of characters, and we will create it like this:

let mut first_char: Vec<char> = line_contents.chars().take(1).collect();


Let’s look at the right-hand one piece at a time:

• line_contents.chars() says, “Get the line_contents variable and convert it to a sequence of characters.” (Rust will create an Iterator object of characters)
• .take(1) says, “Now take the first element of that iterable object.” (Rust will convert this Iterator into a Take<char> object, a special kind of iterator)
• .collect() says, “Now convert everything I have retrieved up to this point into a Collection–something that I can subsequently use–of the type matching the left-hand variable (which is Vec<char>)

It’s a lot of steps, but the more you read them from left to right the more they will make sense. Rust is a language that feels like C but behaves like Ruby; there is a lot going on behind the scenes! At the end of the day, the most important part of the above expression is that collect() takes all the work we did of pulling out the first character and collects up the result in a vector for us.

At this point we have line_contents, which holds the entire contents of the line, and first_char, which has the first character of line_contents. Neat!

We’re about to start doing different things based on what the first character of the line is, but before we do, let’s create a new string variable that will hold the valid HTML that the current line we are reading (line_contents) will translate to:

let mut output_line = String::new();


Just like when we created a Path variable by using Path::new(), we’re using String::new() to declare a mutable variable named output_line.

Our main output variable is tokens; that’s a vector a strings that will contain one string object for every line that comes through from the file. When we are done processing line_contents based on the value of first_char (whether it is a # or not), we will write valid HTML to output_line and then push output_line into tokens. Then, in the last section of this chapter, we will iterate through the strings in tokens and write them all to an output file.

Let’s now write some HTML based on what the first character of the line is.

Remember that first_char is a vector that only has one element. To see it, we will use the pop() method that Rust provides to vectors, which will not return the first character of the line, but rather, an Option object.

Just like Result, Option is made up of two pieces–but they’re called Some() and None() instead of Result's Ok() and Err().

When you pop and element from a vector in Rust, you will either get some value or none. We really only care if we are getting some character that looks like #–or, put another way, Some('#').

The match block has the same kind of syntax that you may recall from before, this time with the default case (_) and Some("#"):


match first_char.pop() {
Some('#') => {},// The first character is #
_ => {} // The first character is not #
}


Let’s work on the first-order heading matches first.

What are the things that need to happen when we arrive at a line that starts with the # character? Don’t think about the lines in sequence; think about the problem and try to come up with what would need to happen algorithmically, regardless of which line we are on.

What do we know about the # character? Well, we know it corresponds to a <h1> tag–an opening tag for a first-order heading. We also know that these should not be nested; in no case should a <h1> tag be followed by a <p> tag, nor should a <p> tag be followed by a <h1> tag. So the first thing we should do is check whether either of these tags are open.

Remember those boolean flag variables we created earlier? They’re finally coming into play!

We’re going to do the Some('#') match block first, and then the default case, denoted by an underscore character (_).

We’ll first check if the ptag is set, since we don’t want to start a new heading tag without first closing an open <p> tag.

If it’s set, we’ll unset it (by marking it false), then send a closing </p> tag and a newline character to the output_line string–which is the string we are creating inside this loop iteration that will be pushed to tokens when we are done processing line_contents:

Some('#') => {
if ptag {
ptag = false;
output_line.push_str("</p>\n");
}



Other than the syntax for the if block, there’s nothing new here. We are setting ptag to false and then using .push_str() to append a string literal onto the end of output_line.

Next, we are going to perform the same check for htag:

Some('#') => {
if ptag {
ptag = false;
output_line.push_str("</p>\n");
}

if htag {
htag = false;
output_line.push_str("</h1>\n");
}


At this point, we have accounted for the two kinds of tags that our compiler knows about; we checked for open paragraph and first-order heading tags, and if we found an open one, we closed it properly. The next thing to do is to set the htag flag to true, then push a new heading tag to output_line.

How do you think we will do that?

💭 Three Possible Solutions

One way to do this is exactly the way we did the checks above:

htag = true;
output_line.push_str("<h1>");


Another way is to add some newline characters, depending on how you want your resultant HTML file to be organized:

htag = true;
output_line.push_str("\n\n<h1>");


This is the part of your compiler where you can add this kind of sugar. For example, if you wanted all your headings to be part of a certain class, you could do something like this:

htag = true;
output_line.push_str("\n\n<h1 class=\"report-title\">");


If you’re feeling confident, go ahead and make this compiler your own by adding in some of these fun customizations!

The easiest way is to just use the .push_str() method from way back in Chapter 3:

htag = true;
output_line.push_str("\n\n<h1>");


At this point, we are almost done processing this line! The last step of this iteration is to actually push the contents of line_contents minus the starting character # and the space next to it onto output_line.

We want line_contents minus the first two characters. Here’s why:

# Sometext
^^
||
|+--- This space is unnecessary for <h1>Sometext</h1>
|
+--- This character converts to <h1>


To get all of line_contents except the first two characters, we can use a special string slice generation method that will feel very familiar to Python developers: &line_contents[2..]. The [2..] says “Take a string slice of line_contents starting at the element in index 2 (so, the third character) and go all the way until the end of the string."

To push this to output_line, we just pass it by reference to .push_str():

  htag = true;
output_line.push_str("\n\n<h1>");
output_line.push_str(&line_contents[2..]); // Get all but the first two characters
}, // end of the Some('#') => { ... } block


The Some('#') match block is complete, but we have one more case to account for before closing it completely: the default case.

For this, the only check we care about is whether there is no ptag. If we read a line that doesn’t start with a #, then what are our priorities? Well, to start a paragraph tag if one isn’t already open! So we’ll check if ptag is false, and if it is, we’ll set it to true and then push <p> to output_line. When we’re done, we will push all of line_contents to output_line.

With those parameters, see if you can finish the match block’s default case by yourself, then open the solution below to see how you did.

💭 One Solution
 _ => {

if !ptag {                      // If ptag is false,
ptag = true;                  // set it to true, then
output_line.push_str("<p>");  // push a <p> to the output line.
}

output_line.push_str(&line_contents); // Push the whole line to the output line.

}
};


At this point, the match block is finished!

Here’s about what it should look like so far:

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27  match first_char.pop() { Some('#') => { if ptag { ptag = false; output_line.push_str("

\n"); // adding \n for instructional clarity } if htag { htag = false; output_line.push_str("\n"); // close it if we're already open } htag = true; output_line.push_str("

"); output_line.push_str(&line_contents[2..]); // Get all but the first two characters }, _ => { if !ptag { ptag = true; output_line.push_str("

"); } output_line.push_str(&line_contents); } }; 

We’re almost finished with this section. Before we can push output_line into the tokens vector (which we will ultimately be writing to the output file), we have three more checks we have to do.

At this point in the program, we have completed checking whether the line is a heading or a paragraph, and we have both opened the appropriate tag and pulled in the contents of the line appropriately. The final three checks we need to do are to 1) check if there’s still an open paragraph tag, 2) check if there’s still an open heading tag, and 3) check if the line is empty, since we don’t really care to write an empty set of tags to the output file.

Right after the closing bracket of the match block, we’ll do our first check: if the paragraph tag is open, close it and push a closing HTML tag.

  if ptag {
ptag = false;
output_line.push_str("</p>\n");
}


Next, we’ll do the same for the heading tag:

  if htag {
htag = false;
output_line.push_str("</h1>\n");
}


Finally, we’ll avoid pushing blank lines by making sure output_line is not equal to two empty paragraph tags:

  if output_line != "<p></p>\n" {
tokens.push(output_line);
}

} // end of "for line in reader.lines()" block


Notice that after the final check above, we are closing out the for loop. Finally!

At this point, our compiler successfully reads and parses paragraph and first-order headings from Markdown to HTML. In the next section, we will derive the name of our output file based on the name of the input file, then write the contents of tokens (which, remember, holds all of the output_line iterations from the for-loop) to our output file.

Let’s add a quick loop that will iterate over tokens and then print out the value of each element–which will give us the resultant HTML that will be written to the output file in the next section.

Try to write a for-loop that iterates over tokens and calls println!() on each element, then check your work against the solution below.

💭 One Solution
for t in &tokens {
println!("{}", t);
}


You can also download all the code up to this point, including the above for-loop that just prints tokens straight to the console, from this gist link.

You may be wondering about that open reader that we never closed. In other languages it’s often necessary to close file pointers. However, Rust will do this automagically when reader falls out of scope. Thanks, Rust!

We’re now ready to put the finishing touches on the parse_markdown_file() function–writing our results to a file.

## How to write to a file in Rust

Remember when we had to include those Rust libraries when we wanted to open and read a file into a buffer? We will have to do the same thing for creating and writing to a file. Fortunately, it’s only one addition.

At the top of main.rs, add a use block for the Write library:

use std::io::Write;


Now let’s head back to the bottom of the parse_markdown_file() function, and think about all we need to do.

By this point, the tokens vector has a bunch of string elements that need to be written to a file. Before we can do that, we need to know which file we are going to be writing to. Most tools have a way of specifying the output file, but since ours is a naive one, we will just have it automatically derive the output file name from whatever we passed as the input file.

Recall that the argument variable for the filename is _filename, and since we are passing it a file called test.md, then the value for _filename is also test.md.

Let’s have our output file be the same name as the input file, minus the last three characters (“.md”) and plus five new ones (“.html”). Our first task will be to get the name of the file without the extension. Again, we’ll be assuming that the only kind of file being passed is a *.md. I’ll leave it to you as a future challenge to accept different filetypes (like *.markdown).

Back in Chapter 4, we learned that we can access specific parts of a string slice by using brackets. For example, if we wanted all but the first three characters of a string slice called example, we could get them like this:

&example[3..]

Likewise, if we wanted to get all but the last three characters, you might think we could do it like this–&example[..-3]–but this is incorrect. In Rust, the bracket notation for string slices must be an unsigned integer that is equal to or less than the length of the string slice.

If we think about our intent with this code ([..-3]–which, again, is NOT valid Rust syntax), we are basically asking for the entire length of the slice minus the last three characters. Since Rust cannot infer that this is what we want, we can explicitly tell it how many characters to use by passing it the length of the string slice first.

The length of example would be example.len(), and to get all but the last three characters, we would put the call to .len() right in the brackets: &example[..example.len()-3].

Substituting out example for _filename, how do you think we might create a mutable String variable called output_filename from a reference to _filename containing all of _filename except the length of _filename minus three characters?

Try it first, then check your work against the solution below.

💭 One Solution

We want a mutable String variable from _filename, so already we know we are going to use String::from(). To get all but the last three characters of _filename, we need to pass the length of _filename minus three into the brackets of the first call to _filename:

  // Create an output file based on the input file, minus ".md"
let mut output_filename = String::from(&_filename[.._filename.len()-3]);


At this point, if we passed in test.md as the filename argument, the value of output_filename would be test. What are we missing?

The .html!

Do you remember how to push a string onto the end of a String object?

output_filename.push_str(".html");


With the name of our file ready, we now need to create the actual file. To do this, we will use File::create(), which returns a Result object. Instead of unpacking the Result object, though, we’re going to continue to use .expect():

let mut outfile = File::create(output_filename)
.expect("[ ERROR ] Could not create output file!");


By this point, I hope you’re comfortable reading the above code. We’re creating a mutable variable outfile equal to the result of File::create(), into which we pass the output_filename. The call to .expect() will trigger only if there was an error creating the file.

With the file created, we are FINALLY ready to loop through tokens and write each element to the output file. Assuming a successfully created outfile, we now have access to a byte-writer called .write_all(). The way it works is like this: for each line in tokens, write each line as a byte sequence to the outfile.

Here it is in code:

for line in &tokens {
outfile.write_all(line.as_bytes())
.expect("[ ERROR ] Could not write to output file!");
}


So outfile.write_all() takes a string as bytes (line.as_bytes()) and stuffs it into the output file. Neat!

Remember that we borrow a reference to the tokens vector (like this: &tokens) because of Rust’s ownership rules. If we didn’t include that &, the value of each element in tokens would be moved into the for-loop and removed from outside of it–and we don’t want that!

Remember, too, that outfile will automatically be closed once it falls out of scope–which will be the at end of the parse_markdown_file() function.

Now that we have finished writing the tokens vector to the output file, let’s add some helpful output to let the user know that the parsing is finished:

println!("[ INFO ] Parsing complete!");


We can now put the closing bracket on our parsing function and test our compiler. You should already have a file called test.md in the root of your project (the same directory as the manifest file). We can trigger a build and a quiet run of the tool by running:

$cargo run -q test.md  You should see something like this: $ cargo run -q test.md
tinymd (v0.1.0), A tiny markdown compiler based on Jesse's tutorials.
[ INFO ] Starting parser!
[ INFO ] Parsing complete!
$ Now check the root of your project directory for a new file called test.html. If you open it in your editor, you should see valid HTML: <h1>My favorite author</h1> <p>This is a report about my favorite writer. His name is Jesse Lawson.</p> <h1>Jesse's favorite food</h1> <p>Jesse really likes enchiladas and any kind of sushi.</p> <h1>Jesse's favorite drink</h1> <p>Jesse likes to drink coffee in the mornings and iced tea throughout the day. Sometimes, he even drinks water.</p> <h1>Jesse's favorite hobbies</h1> <p>Jesse likes to write about computer programming and game design, and when he is not hunched over a computer, you can find him out on a run and listening to a podcast or the serenity of mother nature.</p>  And with that, we are finished! We have successfully built a tiny Markdown compiler in Rust! In this chapter, we fleshed out the meat and potatoes (or tofu and beans) of our Markdown compiler. We developed confidence in opening a file, reading and parsing that file one line at a time, then writing to a file. We also took a deep dive into the basics of logical thinking for a very simple compiler. Now that the tool is finished, it’s time to use Cargo to build a release version of tinymd–which we are going to do in the next and final chapter of this tutorial. # Chapter 6 In the final chapter of this tutorial, we will build a release version of our project. Don’t worry: this chapter is incredibly short! ## Building a release version of a project in Rust Up until now, every time we have built our project using cargo build or cargo run to trigger a build, our executable (tinymd.exe) has been built in the “debug” folder that is located inside the “target” folder in the project root: C:\RustTutorials\ tinymd\ \target \debug tinymd.exe  When you run cargo build with the --release flag, Rust will do a special optimization build of your project, and store it in a “release” folder: C:\RustTutorials\ tinymd\ \target \debug tinymd.exe <- the development version of the compiler \release tinymd.exe <- the release version of the compiler  Let’s go ahead and build it now: $ cargo build --release
Compiling tinymd v0.1.0 (C:\RustTutorials\tinymd)
Finished release [optimized] target(s) in 0.76s


Pretty easy!

The development version has debug symbols that Cargo uses to help you during development, which is one reason that the debug version is always going to be slower than the release version. In the release version, Cargo removes all that and also performs some code optimizations. Building a release version takes a little bit more time, but the end result is a faster and smaller executable.

You can now take the executable from the release directory and put it in any folder you want, and as long as you pass it a path with a valid Markdown file that ends in *.md (that only has first-order headings and paragraphs), it will produce a valid HTML file!

After you run cargo build --release, any code changes you make will only appear in the debug version after running cargo build or cargo run. If you want your changes to appear in a new release version, run cargo build --release again.

And with that, I think we’ll call this tutorial complete.

If you made it this far, I want you to know that I am very proud of all the work you have done here. I have spent about four weeks off and on writing this tutorial with you in mind. Whoever you are, I hope that this tutorial has helped you gain confidence with Rust so that you are well-equipped mentally and emotionally to start tackling some of the more difficult aspects of this really fun and unique language.

## Where to go from here

This tutorial was not an exhaustive introduction to Rust–but I do hope that you have more confidence with Rust to tackle greater challenges.

As far as our tiny Markdown compiler goes, I’ve added some challenges below for you to continue on your journey. Do note that you will have to do some self-study to solve these. The Official Rust Book is a great place to start.

Challenges

• At the end of the match first_char.pop() block, we have to repeat ourselves by checking whether the ptag or htag are open. How could you encapsulate this logic in a function to better adhere to the DRY principle?

• The way we are opening and reading the input file is not the same as what you find in the Rust docs for read_lines here. How (and why) is the linked Rust code different?

• How could you add in some other HTML tags at the top of your output file, like a <style> tag or even a link to a CSS file before you iterate over each line from the input file?

• How would you add support for more than one character as the flag? For example, how could you parse ## This is a second-order heading? (Hint: the first_char is only the first character of line_contents because we used .take(1)…)

• Try to add support for <em> (asterisks) and <strong> (double asterisks)

• When it comes to error checking, Rust has evolved over time to be less verbose. Try out some of the ways Rust lets you skip the verbosity in error-handing by updating parts of the code we wrote to manually unwrap Result objects.

• This tutorial hasn’t even touched on one of the coolest parts of Cargo–integrated testing built right into the ecosystem! Challenge yourself to use some TDD practices on your next tinker project in Rust.